Finality

Block finality refers to the concept that a proposed block is finalized by the blockchain and can not be reverted or the cost of reversion is prohibitively high. Block finality is usually measured by how long it takes for the newly proposed blocks to be finalized. For example, in Ethereum, it takes more than 6 blocks or 1 minute to have reasonable confidence that the block is finalized and can not be reverted.

Thanks to the nature of Harmony‘s FBFT consensus, blocks can be finalized as long as the 2/3 majority quorum is reached on the block. On Harmony mainnet, it now takes 2 seconds to finalize a newly proposed block. Read more about our 2-second finality here:

Epochs

An epoch in Harmony blockchain is a pre-determined period of time when the validator committees of shards stay unchanged. In Harmony mainnet, one epoch is 16384 blocks which translates to about 23 hours. In Harmony testnet, one epoch is 38 blocks which is around 3 minutes.

When one epoch ends, the election for the new validator committees will be conducted in beacon chain and the result (i.e. shard state) will be written in the last block of the epoch in the beacon chain. After that, beacon chain enters the new epoch with the new validator committee producing blocks. Once beacon chain enters new epoch, all the other shards will follow and also enters the new epoch. The new shard state from the beacon chain will be written in the new block of the shards which also marks the last block of the epoch for that shard.